Startup Manifesto beta

Policy Tracker

Track progress in France

Summary

A buoyant legislative movement around tech entrepreneurship started in France a few years ago, engaging a vibrant and energetic community of entrepreneurs, technology geeks and policymakers. Launched in 2013, La French Tech is aimed at fostering and supporting a collective movement around the startup ecosystem. It is financed by the French Economy Ministry and supported at the highest political level. The fact that the policymakers are already strongly engaging with the startup community probably explains why there is no national startup manifesto; a diagnosis has already been made and political leaders understand it’s a priority to make France a “startup nation.” Thus, the emphasis is now on legislative actions and implementation of a startup–friendly environment. On 26 January 2016, the French National Assembly adopted a law “Towards the Digital Republic.” Axelle Lemaire, minister of state for digital affairs, introduced the bill, which was the product of a large public consultation. It intends to tackle many of the uncertainties faced by tech startups and to simplify rules.


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Institutional Framework

“General regulatory environment for startups”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
0.1 Is there a national strategy in support of startups in place? e.g: http://italiastartupvisa.mise.gov.it/ No
0.2 Has the country created a national startup manifesto? No
0.3 Has your country introduced legislation defining startups and providing special status to them (startup status related legislation) eg.: http://www.mise.gov.it/images/stories/documenti/Executive-Summary-of-Italy%27s-new-policy-on-start-ups.pdf. Yes Young Innovative Enterprises (“Jeunes entreprises innovantes”) The 2004 Finance Act introduced a specific status for young innovative companies realising R&D projects. Under several conditions, these companies can benefit from tax reliefs and simplified administrative procedures.
0.4 Does the country effectively appliy SME Test (http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/docs/sba/iag_2009_annex_en.pdf) to systematically assess the impact of legislation on SMEs? Yes In France, all significant legislative proposals must be backed up by a regulatory impact assessment. Since 2014, the ex ante assessment of potential impacts on SMEs - the ‘SME test’ - is to be an integral part of regulatory impact assessments. The French ‘SME test’ includes a set of instruments used on a caseby-case basis. A few pilot ‘SME panels’ have been conducted by asking some SMEs directly for their opinion on the regulatory impacts in a regional context. The tools and processes to apply the ‘SME test’ are waiting to be applied more widely. Several pieces of legislation aimed at reducing administrative burden are under discussion in the parliament, and the government has committed to reducing the costs arising from decrees. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/performance-review/files/countries-sheets/2015/france_en.pdf
0.5 Is the time taken to start a business equal or below EU target of 3 days? No According to World Bank, it took on average 5 days in 2014 http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.REG.DURS/countries
0.6 Has an E-commerce Directive been fully implemented by the country? Yes The EU e-commerce directive has been transposed in French law with the Loi n° 2004-575 du 21 juin 2004 pour la confiance dans l'économie numérique and its title II (Du Commerce Electronique) http://legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000801164&dateTexte=&categorieLien=id
0.7 Have measures in support of the principles of a digital single market been undertaken on a national level? Yes http://ec.europa.eu/priorities/digital-single-market/docs/factsheets/france_en.pdf
0.8 Have provisions enabling new legally challenging business models of sharing economy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharing_economy) such as blablacar, Airbnb, Uber? No

Education & Skills

“Make teachers digitally confident and competent to rise to the challenge.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.1.1 Does a strategy document exist alone or as a part of a bigger strategic package? Yes Plan Digital France 2012 (France Numerique 2012), Oct 2008, action 92-95; although it does not mention the professional e-skills explicitly, several initiatives on digital literacy are run by the governmental Delegation for Internet Use (DUI)
1.1.2 Has ICT been implemented as a part of the core curriculum? Yes Pilot action introducing Digital Learning Environment l’Espace Numérique de Travail) http://www.canal-u.tv digital resources for higher education platform, national government provides teachers a set of digital teaching aids, local governments responsibility lies in putting in place eLearning at schools, most importantly for disabled or hospitalised students (with the preference for open source solutions). The extension of the Digital France Plan, the Rural Digital School Plan (Ecoles numériques rurales - ENR ) launched in 2009 resulted in 6.700 of rural schools with less than 2000 inhabitants having access to the Internet, white interactive board and dozen of computers. Collaboration with la Caisse des Dépôts enabled to create several dozen of cyber classrooms. http://fr.euronews.com/2015/02/18/enseigner-le-code-aux-enfants/ Coding integrated in school curriculum. Read more on cross-European comparison: http://www.euractiv.com/sections/eu-code-week-2015/infographic-coding-school-how-do-eu-countries-compare-318506
1.1.3 Are there effective government initiatives in place to encourage the involvement of startups and developers in providing ICT training for teachers and students? No
1.1.4 Are the training initiatives (for teachers) using e-learning tools present in the national programmes and action plans? Yes The Digital Plan for Education (Plan Numérique pour l'Education) also includes training for teachers. http://www.education.gouv.fr/cid88712/plan-numerique-pour-l-education-500-ecoles-et-colleges-seront-connectes-des-2015.html http://www.nextinpact.com/news/94042-hollande-detaille-son-plan-pour-numerique-a-l-ecole-milliard-d-euros-sur-table.htm Pairform@nce is a platform for (registered) in-service teachers. The platform takes a blended approach, combining face-to-face and online training (eduscol.education.fr/cid57131/pairform@nce-formation-collaborativeligne.html).
“Teach our children the principles, processes and the passion for entrepreneurship from young age.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.2.1 Has a national system for vocational traineeships in entrepreneurship for 12 - 18 y.o. been established? Yes Entrepreneurship education in France is linked to ‘professional discovery’ and career guidance. However, this type of education is not specified in national curricula. It is normally provided at the initiative of local authorities, individual schools, or specialist organisations, through voluntary activities. As a result, despite some recent progress, enterprise and entrepreneurship are not yet widely recognised in the French education system. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/smes/vocational/entr_voca_en.pdf
1.2.2 Have courses / activities aimed at enhancing entrepreneurship skills been introduced as a part of the core curriculum in a primary and a secondary education system (e.g. willingness to take risks, ability and willingness to take initiative)? No
“Encourage university students to start a business before they graduate.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.3.1 Are there national/ regional programmes that encourage (e.g. with providing co-funding) the creation of startup Incubators / Accelerators? Yes FrenchTech is a national initiative that manages 200 millions of euros to enhance the development of startup accelerators in France. http://www.lafrenchtech.com/accelerateurs
1.3.2 Has the country introduced any funding programmes for students who want to translate their business idea into a reality? Yes http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid79926/statut-national-etudiant-entrepreneur.html http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid74716/pepite-constitution-de-poles-etudiants-pour-l-innovation-le-transfert-et-l-entrepreneuriat.html
1.3.3 Has the country taken additional measures to promote more actively Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs programme? No Not at the national level. Some regional initiatives exist though: - Encosi (https://www.facebook.com/pages/Encosi/1571926063076736?sk=info&tab=page_info), which includes the Luberon Region), - Euroregion Pyrénées Méditerrannée (http://www.euroregio.eu/fr/innovation-et-developpement-economique/erasmus-pour-jeunes-entrepreneurs)
1.3.4 Has the country developed incentives for academics to engage in entrepreneurial activity and stimulate the creation of university spin-offs? No
1.3.5 Have support measures to mentor and coach women entrepreneurs at undergraduate level been implemented? No
“Prepare graduates for a radically different marketplace (digital skills + vocational training).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.4.1 Has your country joined the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs with a national/local coalition to promote digital employment? No 10 proposals for France to answer the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs challenges have been handed out by Syntec Numérique to the French Government in January 2014, but so far, no concrete plea has been made. http://www.syntec-numerique.fr/actualite/syntec-numerique-remis-au-gouvernement-dix-propositions-plan-national-formation http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/grand-coalition-digital-jobs-0
1.4.2 Has some form of "digital course certificate" confirming ICT skills been introduced as part of a curriculum in the higher education system? Yes The B2i (IT and Internet Certificate), created by an official memorandum issued by the MoE’s Directorate for Primary and Secondary Education, tests students’ competence in ICT use (BOEN no. 42 of 23/11/2000, updated in 2006: BOEN no. 42 of 16/11/2006). The certificate covers the following competences: Knowing how to use an ICT-based working environment; Awareness of the legal and social constraints entailed in judicious use of these technologies; Data processing; Effective web searching; Communicating using technologies. The B2i was updated in December 2011, as the evolutions of the internet and the development of the pedagogical uses of digital technologies have led to a reform of the framework of reference for B2i for primary and lower secondary schools to ensure that students are better prepared to use these technologies responsibly. http://eduscol.education.fr/pid26632/espace-b2i-ecole-college.html
1.4.3 Has the Action 68 of the Digital Agenda to mainstream eLearning in national policies been implemented in your country? Yes http://daeimplementation.eu/indicator.php?id_country=9&action_n=68
“Encourage large companies to provide training for the general public (for management, leadership and communication skills).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.5.1 Have the measures to promote / scale up business - universities partnerships within the Knowledge Alliance on a national level been undertaken? Yes Chambre de Commerce et de l"Industrie de Vaulcluse - European Foodbusiness Transfer Laboratory for stimulating entrepreneurial skills, for fostering innovation and for business creation in food sector
1.5.2 Have measure been introduced (such as co-financing by the country) to support provision of specific training (management, sales etc.) by corporates for people already working for SMEs / startups or unemployed? No
1.5.3 Have the national programmes to promote business-universities partnerships been implemented to provide work placement as part of the curriculum? No

Access to Talent

“Turn Europe into the easiest place for highly skilled talent to start a company and get a job by rolling out a pan-European startup Visa.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.1.1 Has a national startup visa programme to streamline process of setting up a business by non-EU, skilled talent been introduced in your country? Yes France offers a resident permit called Compétences et talents (Competencies and Talents) that grants visa for entrepreneurs that "are likely to make a significant or lasting contribution, through their skills or talents, to France’s economic development or to its intellectual, scientific, cultural, humanitarian or athletic prestige, and directly or indirectly, to that of their own country". http://www.immigration-professionnelle.gouv.fr/proc%C3%A9dures A draft law on rights for foreigners has been submitted to Parliament which sets out the issuance of a new multi-annual residence permit specifically for qualified foreign workers, the so-called “talent passport”. The permit will have a maximum duration of four years for all qualified foreign workers and, where applicable, their families. It will include nine distinct categories corresponding to current economic realities, specifically young graduates, scientists, highly qualified workers, investors, executive officers, entrepreneurs, inter-company transferees, and artists, as well as foreign workers with an international reputation in a scientific, literary, intellectual, educational or sporting field. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/reports/docs/annual-policy/annual-policy-10a_france_national_policy_report_part_2_2014_en_version.pdf
2.1.2 Has a national policy in support of attracting foreign startups been introduced? Yes French Minister of State for the digital economy Axelle Lemaire announced a new entrepreneur visa package called the French Tech Ticket. With this package, foreign entrepreneurs could get a work visa, a $14,000-$28,000 grant (€12,500-€25,000) for each team member, free office space in an incubator in Paris as well as an English-speaking administrative advisor. http://techcrunch.com/2015/06/29/france-launches-french-tech-ticket-a-startup-visa-for-foreign-entrepreneurs/
2.1.3 Has the EU Blue Card Directive (Directive 2009/50/EC) aimed at facilitating the admission and mobility of highly qualified migrants and their family members by harmonising entry and residence conditions throughout the EU been fully implemented by the country? Yes Ce dispositif vise à faciliter l’entrée, le séjour et le travail en France des ressortissants de pays tiers aux fins d’emploi hautement qualifié. La France est le premier Etat membre de l’Union Européenne à transposer par la loi du 16 juin 2011 relative à l'immigration, à l'intégration et à la nationalité, la directive européenne 2009/50/CE du 25 mai 2009. http://www.immigration-professionnelle.gouv.fr/proc%C3%A9dures/fiche/carte-bleue-europ%C3%A9enne
2.1.4 Has the country signed bilateral and/or multilateral agreements with non-EU countries facilitating easier / free movement of workers? Yes Decree No. 2014-921 of 18 August 2014 exempted nationals of third countries living in France under a 'working holiday' visa from the obligation to apply for a residence or work permit. This 'working holiday' visa is granted to third-country nationals wishing to visit France for tourist or cultural reasons, while occasionally working in the country to provide themselves with extra financial resources. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/reports/docs/annual-policy/annual-policy-10a_france_national_policy_report_part_2_2014_en_version.pdf
“Make it easy for companies to hire outside their home countries in the EU.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.2.1 Has a national policy measure in support of making a remote hiring of employees directly across EU possible and less burdensome been introduced (e.g. elimination of residence requirement)? No
“Make it easier for smaller companies to let employees go (special flexibility in human resources management for small companies).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.3.1 Has the country enabled the flexible and reliable contractual arrangements in line with EU common flexicurity principles? Yes In France, a new type of "specified-purpose" contract (contrat à objet défini) or "mission contract" (contrat de mission) lasting not more than 36 months has been created to take account of situations where an company is reluctant to recruit on an open-ended contract. At the end of the mission, the company may retain the employee, whose contract becomes open-ended. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=1515&langId=en The country is at the EU average with respect to flexible and reliable contractual arrangements http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en
2.3.2 Has the country adopted the comprehensive life-long learning strategies in support of EU common flexicurity principles? No The country shows performance below the EU average with respect to life-long learning strategies http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en However, Law No 2004-391 on lifelong-learning in the public sector and social dialogue entered into force on 04 May 2004. The law n 2007-148 also applied to the public sector http://legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000613810&dateTexte=&categorieLien=id http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000465739&categorieLien=id
2.3.3 Has the country implemented the effective active labor market policies to assist job-to-job transition in line with EU common flexicurity principles? Yes The country shows performance above the EU average with respect to the active labour market policies http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en
2.3.4 Has the country introduced the modern social security systems’ solutions in line with EU common flexicurity principles (e.g. solutions that would ensure the possibility for temporary workers to accumulate rights and would improve portability of entitlements across firm or branch borders)? Yes The country shows performance above the EU average in terms of the modern social security systems solutions http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en
“Bring the best brains back home (EU countries must launch targeted campaigns aimed at bringing their talent back home, through research grants, logistical support and public recognition).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.4.1 Has a national/ regional strategy to attract high-skilled labor through international student recruitment been developed? Yes The temporary residence permit for 12 months to look for a job after graduation. https://www.migreat.com/en/can-i-stay-and-work-in-france-if-i-am-a-fresh-graduate-from-a-french-university-s164
2.4.2 Have initiatives been undertaken at national / regional level that align with the HR Strategy for Researchers and the European Charter and Code? Yes Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - INRA, Université Montpellier http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/index.cfm/rights/strategy4ResearcherOrgs
2.4.3 Has the Researchers Directive (EU Scientific Visa) been fully implemented in the country? Yes http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/pdf/1_EN_ACT_part1_v6[1].pdf http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/ICMPD_General/Policy_Brief_March_2012_Scientific_Visa.pdf

Access to Capital

“Increase private and institutional investment in startups.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.1.1 Have provisions for facilitating secure access to alternative sources of funding, such as equity crowdfunding, mezzanine instruments or minibonds (convertible notes) and etc., been set up? Yes France is a pioneer in the field of Crowdfunding regulation and that the French government has met most of the operators' expectations in respect thereto. The French legal framework for Crowdfunding activities applicable as from 1 October 2014 was adopted on 30 May 2014 and detailed in Ordinance no. 2014-559 as later detailed on specific provisions by Decree no. 2014-1053 dated 16 September 2014. Further to the adoption of this new set of rules, the General Markets Authority Regulations (Regulations of the French Financial Market Authority Autorité des Marchés Financiers - AMF) were modified pursuant to Ministerial Order dated 22 September 2014, also applicable as from 1 October 2014. http://www.eurocrowd.org/files/2014/12/ECN-Review-of-Crowdfunding-Regulation-2014.pdf
3.1.2 Have measures to promote public – private investment partnerships in order to address risk-aversion of venture capital, e.g. by creating national co-investment funds between public entities and private investors on a national level been established? Yes Angel Source - BPI scheme (public-private co-financing): The French Banque Publique d'Investissement (Bpifrance) was created in 2012 In partnership with banking and finance establishments, Bpifrance funds SMEs along different stages of the funding escalator. It provides cash to cover R&D expenses and equity seed capital to strengthen a company’s financial structure and thus prepare it for initial fundraising. It also provides industrialisation loans to fund downstream expenditure for R&D projects; participatory development contracts to strengthen the equity capital base to implement development projects, innovation loans to finance the launch of innovations; and reindustrialisation assistance to fund investment expenditure. Through innovation development contracts the fund helps to fund non-tangible investment and working capital requirements associated with an innovation. In addition Crédit Agricole Private Equity private-public fund: https://www.awsg.at/Content.Node/files/sonstige/Compendium-Co-Investment-Funds-2014-v1.pdf
3.1.3 Has an effective debt financing system been established by creating well-structured credit guarantees on bank loans on national level in order to enable banks to extend loans to startups that would otherwise not be able to find credit? Yes he creation in 2013 of a unique institution (Bpifrance) in charge of managing public funds and guarantees and seeking to facilitate access to finance. EU InnovFin SME Guarantee are available: http://www.eif.org/what_we_do/guarantees/single_eu_debt_instrument/innovfin-guarantee-facility/innovfin-smeg_signatures.pdf
3.1.4 Has the Late Payment Directive been implemented in the country that reduces the time to pay the invoice and hence the need for short-term financing? Yes The article 121 of the law 2012-387 (22 March 2012) about simplification transposes the Late Payment Directive in French law Loi de Modernisation de l'Economie http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexteArticle.do;jsessionid=94F985DFFC9CD780D4ECF1EBB3B368BF.tpdila09v_1?idArticle=JORFARTI000025554098&cidTexte=JORFTEXT000025553296&dateTexte=29990101&categorieLien=id The last piece of legislation that ends the process of the transposition comes on 31 March 2013 with the "décret"on late payments for public contracts http://www.economie.gouv.fr/commande-publique-publication-decret-relatif-a-lutte-contre-retards-paiement http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2014_2019/documents/imco/dv/late_payments_directive_eprs_/late_payments_directive_eprs_en.pdf
3.1.5 Have actions to improve access to finance for startups and SMEs been undertaken? Yes Digital loans For the SMEs engaging in digital solutions: - The Government will provide a loan package of € 300 million; - The State will subsidize loans amounting to € 27 million; - Loans of between € 200k and € 3 million will be provided to SMEs; For very small companies: - The program “digital transition” (Transition Numérique); - Quantified commitments. http://www.gouvernement.fr First deals, enabling loans contracts to micro-enterprises, will be signed between the EIF and Qredits Microfinanciering (The Netherlands), Association pour le Droit à l'Initiative Economique (France), Microfinance Ireland (Ireland), PerMicro (Italy), Laboral Kutxa/ Caja Laboral Popular (Spain) and Nextebank (Romania), covering six countries and only 5 months after the launch of the EaSI initiative. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-5862_en.htm
“Make it easier for high-growth companies to raise capital through public markets.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.2.1 Has a national legislation on venture capital (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venture_capital) (in support of the EC´s new venture capital framework (http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/consultations/docs/2011/venture_capital/consultation_paper_en.pdf) been introduced that enables cross-border financing for SMEs more easily available ? No
3.2.2 Have measures to support business angels friendly environment been introduced on a national level? Yes In the case of France, the Avantage Madelin provides a tax credit of 25% (up to a maximum of €40,000) for any investment in a SME provided the equity is kept for more than five years.
3.2.3 Have tax reliefs on seed and venture capital investments been introduced on national level? Yes Business Angels benefit from a tax reduction of 18% of the amount invested with the limit of EUR 50,000 (EUR 100,000 if it is a couple). The investment must be held for at least 5 years and the company must be an SME. In addition to this, individuals eligible to the wealth tax the individual can invest up to EUR 45,000 by reducing the wealth tax by 50%. This tax breaks also apply when investing in SMEs across the 27 EU Member States which is an exception.http://www.eban.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Compendium-fiscal-2014-v1.pdf
3.2.4 Have tax incentives for acquiring startups / on reinvesting profit in startup businesses for investors of a national origin been implemented? No
3.2.5 Has the revised Directive on transparency requirements for listed companies been implemented in the country (Transparency Directive)? Yes The law n° 2014-1662 from 30 December 2014 on various adaptations of the legislation to the EU law on economic and financial matters transposes, in its article 9, the Transparency Directive http://www.amf-france.org/en_US/Reglementation/Dossiers-thematiques/Societes-cotees-et-operations-financieres/Marches-d-actions/Directive-Transparence-revisee---la-transposition-se-poursuit.html http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000029999826&categorieLien=id http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichLoiPubliee.do;jsessionid=8ADA98AC463FEC44F5EDFE54D0B149FA.tpdjo04v_3?idDocument=JORFDOLE000029254232&type=general&legislature=14
3.2.6 Have policies to promote easier access to stock exchange for high growth companies been adopted, such as: a single registration in the home country, and with simplified accounting and reporting (disclosure) obligations? Yes Euronext Paris' Nouveau Marché lists fast-growing start up companies seeking capital to finance expansion, linked to Euro.nm, the European equity growth market. In addition Alternext - Alternext offers a market access with fewer obligations intended primarily for small- and mid-cap companies making them available to a wide range of investors. The market is not a regulated market within the meaning of E.U. directives. And EnterNext - is the subsidiary of the Euronext Group designed to develop and promote its stock markets specifically for small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). https://www.enternext.biz/. Both available for Belgium, NL, France, Portugal.
“Buy more from smaller businesses.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.3.1 Have the measures been implemented to promote procurement from SMEs (for example by make it easier for startups and SMEs to access government procurement market by lowering barriers to entry and lessening administrative burden of the process, or by promoting procurement from smaller companies by corporates)? Yes On the policy side, measures in favour of SMEs have been put in place since 2008, such as the splitting of large tenders into smaller lots and introducing proportionality of qualifications and financial requirements. All public tenders launched by the government are centralised on one website, but this does not include tenders launched by local authorities or agencies. In 2014, the procurement code and several related decrees were modified to allow SMEs, in particular those recently established, to have easier access to public tenders. This modification simplified application files, as it bans public purchasers from requesting supporting documents that have previously been submitted to public authorities, but this will only be implemented gradually by 2018. For the first time, the government also committed to a specific target of 25 % of the overall volume of public procurement going to SMEs in 2015. This target is monitored across ministries and helps to create a culture that is supportive to SMEs. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/performance-review/files/countries-sheets/2015/france_en.pdf
3.3.2 Does the country make use of European Code of best practices facilitating access by SMEs to public procurement contracts? Yes "This 'Code of Best Practices' helps public authorities to develop ‘strategies’, ‘programmes’ or ‘action plans’ with the specific aim of facilitating SMEs’ access to public contracts." In France, the Public Procurement Code includes a lot of measures towards SMEs and public contracts, for instance the government created a platform where SMEs can consult public procurement ads and apply to them (PLACE); also the law on the modernisation of the economy (2008) proposed to the public procurers to reserve for SMEs public contracts that would deal with high technologies, R&D and tech research. http://www.economie.gouv.fr/cedef/acces-des-pme-aux-marches-publics France has developed an Internet web site to provide information to SMEs: http://pme.service-public.fr/.
3.3.3 Has legislation been implemented to make sure that at least some percentage of the administration procurement goes to "innovative" solutions (so called "innovative public procurement")? Yes The French government set a target to dedicate 2% of public procurement expenditure to innovation. A proposal is under discussion in which the French government would co-finance 20% of the procurement cost for deploying innovative solutions in the water sector, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/news/innovation-procurement-initiatives-around-europe
3.3.4 Is SMEs' share in the total value of public contracts awarded above EU average (29% in 2013)? Yes 31% http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/publicprocurement/docs/modernising_rules/smes-access-and-aggregation-of-demand_en.pdf
“Institute an E-Corp: a new type of cross-European corporation. ”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.4.1 Has the Council Directive Council Directive 2001/86/EC supplementing the Statute for European Company fully adopted by the country? Yes Transposed into national legislation http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=2453&langId=en
3.4.2 Has the Service Directive (Directive 2006/123/EC of 12 December 2006 on services in the internal market) been fully implemented by the country? Yes Yes, it's been done on time, by 28 December 2009 http://www.vie-publique.fr/actualite/alaune/europe-directive-services-transposee-france.html Implemented but no horizontal law adopted http://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/services/services-directive/implementation/index_en.htm
“Tax share options as capital gains, not income, to attract talent to startups (special tax regime for startups).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.5.1 Have national regulations been developed in support of easing up early startups regulatory burden (e.g. preferential tax scheme on share options for employees in order for startups to attract talent without big initial investment in salaries)? No
3.5.2 Does the government have a differential tax rate for companies according to their age or the size of their profit? Yes in France, SMEs are subject to a reduced statutory tax rate of 15% on the first EUR 38 120 of profit; the debt bias is therefore limited for such companies, but only if the profits do not exceed this level http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/resources/documents/taxation/gen_info/economic_analysis/tax_papers/taxation_paper_58.pdf
3.5.3 Has the government implemented an ‘Entrepreneurs Relief’ tax break to reduce the capital gains tax on selling all or part of the business? Yes To direct savings towards business the taxation on capital gains has been reduced and new financial products have been developed.
3.5.4 Has the government introduced any other early stage tax relief for entrepreneurs and their employees? Yes Any individual domiciled in France for tax purposes who has made an investment in an eligible small or medium-size enterprise (SME) is eligible for the tax reduction. To be eligible for the personal income tax reduction, the eligible company must also be either a company that was created less than five years previous in seed, start-up or expansion stage, employing less than 50 employees and whose annual turnover or whose value of total assets is less than €10 million. In the case of an equity share in a SME purchased directly or indirectly, the total wealth tax reduction is set at 50% of the total payments made. The tax reduction is capped at €45,000.The TEPA law from 21st August 2007 is extended till 31st of December 2016.

Data Policy, Protection & Privacy

“Revise and normalise data protection laws (unified data protection law in Europe).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.1.1 Is the country complaint with the General Data Protection Regulation GDPR (only valid after approval of the regulation)? No
4.1.2 Has the country developed programmes to encourage the reuse of data in public and private sector? No Only on public data. France is high on OURdata Index: Open, Useful, Reusable Government data, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/government-at-a-glance-2015_gov_glance-2015-en
“Remove the requirement for data providers to store information in any given country. ”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.2.3 Has the country developed a specific Cloud Computing Strategy? Yes Yes, in 2011, the French government launched the initiative of a French Sovereign Cloud, Andromède. But in the end, two consortia have been created, Numergy and Cloudwatt. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androm%C3%A8de_%28cloud%29 But in general, the strategy doesn't seem to be a success. http://www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats/editos-analyses/0204173981400-cloud-souverain-un-gachis-a-la-francaise-1096130.php
“Make government data public.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.3.1 Has the Public Sector Information Directive been fully implemented in the country? No see www.epsiplatform.eu/content/european-psi-scoreboard.
4.3.2 Does the national law of the country provide for a general obligation for public sector bodies to allow re-use of Public Sector Information? No https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/implementation-psi-directive-france
4.3.3 Does legislation adopted in the country prohibit Public Sector Information holders from granting exclusive rights to re-sell or re-use data to any legal entity? No In August 2015, the revised European Directive about the re-use of public sector information (2013/37/UE) was not yet transposed into French law. The project law for the transposition does not include the free of charge re-use of public sector information. http://www.pratiques-collaboratives.net/L-Open-Data-francais-merite-mieux-qu-une-transposition-au.html?lang=fr http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/projets/pl3037.asp
4.3.4 Has the country taken part in the Open Government initiatives, such as Open Government Partnership (OGP), to drive best practice in knowledge sharing and promote integrity and trust in data management? Yes Clotilde Valter, state secretary responsible for the state reform and simplification, is the French government representative at the Open Government Partnership Steering Committee. http://www.opengovpartnership.org/countries http://www.opengovpartnership.org/about/steering-committee/role-and-current-membership http://www.gouvernement.fr/ministre/clotilde-valter
4.3.5 Has the country improved policies and practices on Open Access to better allow access to data and re-use of data generated by scientific research? No https://www.openaire.eu/france/noads/oa-france France has played an important role in the European open access movement, particularly in the launch of the Berlin declaration that was co-worked by the Max Planck Society and people from the CNRS. Among French research structures, the research organisms (CNRS, INSERM in particular) played a major role in the beginning of the 2000’s, especially with the launch of the HAL open archive in 2001. France also set forth an important initiative regarding open access journals with the Revues.org platform founded in 1999 and specialized in Humanities and Social Sciences. It is operated by a joint service unit bringing together the CNRS, two universities (Avignon and Provence) and a grande école (EHESS). Revues.org hosts at the beginning of 2010 more than 220 journals, around 90 of them being fully open access. As of August 2015: it's in the project law on digital by Axelle Lemaire, secretary of state for digital, to grant access to anyone to data generated by publicly funded scientific research. http://www.franceinfo.fr/emission/l-interview-politique/2015-ete/axelle-lemaire-le-projet-de-loi-numerique-en-consultation-en-septembre-18-08-2015-08-11
“Make governments think digitally (unified technological platform).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.4.1 Has the country built analytical tools to make use of governmental digital records and data in order to deliver insight in support of better deliverables, better policies and better decision making processes (for example use of health data to identify trends, preventive actions)? Yes The French website about Open Data (data.gouv.fr) includes a FAQ which gives an exhaustive list of information about the software that can be utilised to re-use the data https://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/faq/reuser/
4.4.2 Have the country aligned national interoperability frameworks with the European Interoperability Framework? Yes 66% National Interoperability Framework (NIF) - European Interoperability Framework (EIF) alignment http://ec.europa.eu/isa/documents/publications/2014-report-on-state-of-play-of-interoperability.pdf
4.4.3 Has the country joined the European Cloud Partnership initiatives in order to advance towards joint procurement of cloud computing services by public bodies based on the emerging common user requirements? Yes Cécile Dubarry, head of the digital economy service at the French Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Digital, is a member of the steering board of the European Cloud Partnership http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/document.cfm?doc_id=4966 http://lannuaire.service-public.fr/services_nationaux/administration-centrale-ou-ministere_181070.html

Thought Leadership

“Initiate a mentality shift across Europe in terms of how we define success - promoting entrepreneurship.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.1.1 Does the country conduct any PR and media campaigns at national/regional level aimed at promoting entrepreneurship (e.g. by appointing a role model, an entrepreneur in residence” to promote entrepreneurial culture etc.)? Yes In 2011, a reality show promoting entrepreneurship was broadcast by the public channel France 4 http://www.chefdentreprise.com/thematique/entrepreneuriat-1024/pme-pmi-10111/Breves/Une-emission-de-tele-realite-sur-les-entrepreneurs-42432.htm In March 2015, the Ministry for Women's Rights and some French regions launched the Female Entrepreneurship Week to inform the youth about female entrepreneurship http://www.apce.com/pid14278/semaine-de-la-sensibilisation-des-jeunes-a-l-entrepreneuriat-feminin.html?espace
5.1.2 Does the country actively promote women entrepreneurship through specifically targeted mentoring and networking programmes? Yes A national plan for the development of women entrepreneurship was launched in 2013 by three female ministers. Its objectives, especially to increase the number of female entrepreneurs from 30% to 40%, must be reached in 2017. http://www.france.fr/entreprendre-et-reussir-en-france/le-soutien-lentrepreneuriat-feminin.html The country participates in the European network of female entrepreneurship ambassadors http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/promoting-entrepreneurship/we-work-for/women/support-networks/index_en.htm
5.1.3 Have the legislative measures been introduced to improve policies allowing second chance for entrepreneurs? Yes At the "Assises de l'Entrepreneuriat 2013", the President of the Republic announced that the honest failed entrepreneurs would no longer be listed by the Bank of France as "failed." The indicator has been officially removed on 09 September 2013 (http://www.gouvernement.fr/action/l-entrepreneuriat) This measure is supposed to ease their access to lending from the banks, but it's only a first step that helps shifting to the Anglo-Saxon culture of praying the failure. More needs to be done to change mentalities and banks behaviours. http://business.lesechos.fr/entrepreneurs/aides-reseaux/dossiers/10028765/10028727-assises-de-l-entrepreneuriat-vers-le-droit-a-l-echec-un-premier-pas-du-gouvernement-34193.php Over recent years, the most important policy initiative concerning ‘second chance’ was the abolition of the ‘040’ listing. This listed the names of bankrupt entrepreneurs, but since this abolition they can enjoy somewhat easier access to bank loans if they went bankrupt only once over the previous five years. However, although the ‘040’ listing was abolished in France's central bank, commercial banks still keep their own records and these may be an obstacle when trying to start again. France also introduced measures aiming at completion of bankruptcy-related procedures within one year. The time to be fully discharged, which on average takes about 15 months in France, is well below the EU target of 3 years. No significant new policy measures related to ‘second chance’ were implemented or announced during 2014 and the first quarter of 2015. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/performance-review/files/countries-sheets/2015/france_en.pdf
5.1.4 Does the government support the mentorship programmes for startups either through funding, introductions, provision of space, supplying mentors or creation of networks? Yes ‘La French Tech’ programme aims at structuring ‘favourable ecosystems’ for start-ups’, to accelerate their growth and their international visibility. http://www.startup42.org/
“Appoint a Chief Digital Officer for every country in the EU. ”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.2.1 Has a Digital Champion been appointed in the country? Yes Gilles Babinet http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/digital-champion-france
5.2.2 Is the Digital Champion or an equivalent figure (“Chef Digital Officer”) empowered with the practical means to execute Startup Manifesto on a national level (budget, recognition, political support)? Yes Axelle Lemaire, secrétaire d'Etat chargée du Numérique, auprès du ministre de l’Economie, de l'Industrie et du Numérique http://www.economie.gouv.fr/le-ministere/axelle-lemaire The role of the Digital Champion is not related to the French government per se. He has a strategic role (advising the European Commission on its digital strategy, thanks to his expertise in France) and an operational role (passing on the information from the European level to the national level) http://www.parisregionlab.com/
“Create a 'best practices' repository.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.3.1 Has the country taken steps to promote and showcase the best practices (for example, by creating a resource to share best practices´ in promoting digital entrepreneurship or actively promoting best practices on a national / regional level)? No
“Establish a Digital European Forum.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.4.1 Has an association that actively promotes recommendations of the European Startup Manifesto at the national level been launched in the country? Yes “La French Tech” refers to all the people working for or with French startups , in France or abroad. La French Tech - this ecosystem is made up of entrepreneurs, obviously, but also investors, engineers, designers, developers, associations, bloggers, media, big companies, and government agencies http://en.lafrenchtech.com/
5.4.2 Does the country have actively engaged entrepreneurs, policy makers and officials in European Digital Forum? Yes Gilles Babinet, digital champion of France, serves on the Advisory Board of the European Digital Forum La French Tech

Latest Updates

New information
In Action 4.2 in Spain Remove the requirement for data providers to store information in any given country.
Updated on 2016-03-16 23:57:17 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 4.1 in Latvia Revise and normalise data protection laws (unified data protection law in Europe).
Updated on 2016-03-16 11:23:59 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 4.4 in Latvia Make governments think digitally (unified technological platform).
Updated on 2016-03-16 11:23:59 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 4.3 in Austria Make government data public.
Updated on 2016-03-16 10:58:39 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 1.1 in Austria Make teachers digitally confident and competent to rise to the challenge.
Updated on 2016-03-16 10:51:00 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 1.5 in Cyprus Encourage large companies to provide training for the general public (for management, leadership and communication skills).
Updated on 2016-03-16 10:47:06 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 3.1 in Belgium Increase private and institutional investment in startups.
Updated on 2016-02-26 16:29:13 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 3.5 in Spain Tax share options as capital gains, not income, to attract talent to startups (special tax regime for startups).
Updated on 2016-02-22 15:41:03 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 3.3 in France Buy more from smaller businesses.
Updated on 2016-02-22 13:38:21 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 2.3 in Latvia Make it easier for smaller companies to let employees go (special flexibility in human resources management for small companies).
Updated on 2016-02-22 13:33:43 by Kasia Jakimowicz