Startup Manifesto beta

Policy Tracker

Track progress in Spain

Summary

Some 89% of employment in Spain is generated by companies with 20 employees – or less. And yet, the Spanish startup ecosystem lacks connection between different initiatives as well as useful and objective information about available resources. Furthermore, since the ecosystem is so young, there is a large disproportion of experienced and unskilled entrepreneurs. The Spanish entrepreneurial ecosystem has made a lot of progress in the last couple of years. However, there are still some individual and cultural elements that damage entrepreneurial activity and affect personal and corporate decision making processes. To drive the much-needed change, a group of entrepreneurs launched the Spanish Startup Manifesto in support of the Startup Manifesto.


To track progress in the implementation of other priorities and actions across countries – visit the interactive Dashboard page

The Startup Manifesto Policy Tracker is a dynamic tool, open to suggestions for improvement and external contributions. If you would like to share with us a country or regional initiative which you believe should be included in this survey, please leave your comment below.


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Institutional Framework

“General regulatory environment for startups”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
0.1 Is there a national strategy in support of startups in place? e.g: http://italiastartupvisa.mise.gov.it/ Yes In September 2013, the omnibus law on entrepreneurship was approved. It included a number of measures to facilitate SME access to capital markets, support the internationalisation of businesses, promote the participation of SMEs in public procurement, simplify the business environment to ease company startups, and introduce entrepreneurship content in education. Spain has also decided to adopt the ‘one-in, one-out’ principle to reduce administrative burdens, but this awaits the approval of implementing regulations.
0.2 Has the country created a national startup manifesto? Yes http://www.spainstartupmanifesto.com/
0.3 Has your country introduced legislation defining startups and providing special status to them (startup status related legislation) eg.: http://www.mise.gov.it/images/stories/documenti/Executive-Summary-of-Italy%27s-new-policy-on-start-ups.pdf. No
0.4 Does the country effectively appliy SME Test (http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/docs/sba/iag_2009_annex_en.pdf) to systematically assess the impact of legislation on SMEs? No In Spain the ‘think small first’ principle is still applied in a very incomplete way and key provisions of the SBA have yet to be implemented. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/performance-review/files/countries-sheets/2015/spain_en.pdf
0.5 Is the time taken to start a business equal or below EU target of 3 days? Yes 3 days http://europa.eu/youreurope/business/start-grow/start-ups/index_en.htm
0.6 Has an E-commerce Directive been fully implemented by the country? Yes Ley 34/2002, de 11 de julio, de servicios de la sociedad de la información y de comercio electrónico BOE n° 166, 12.7.2002, p. 25388 http://www.setsi.mcyt.es
0.7 Have measures in support of the principles of a digital single market been undertaken on a national level? Yes http://ec.europa.eu/priorities/digital-single-market/docs/factsheets/spain_en.pdf
0.8 Have provisions enabling new legally challenging business models of sharing economy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharing_economy) such as blablacar, Airbnb, Uber? No

Education & Skills

“Make teachers digitally confident and competent to rise to the challenge.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.1.1 Does a strategy document exist alone or as a part of a bigger strategic package? Yes As part of the Avanza Plan there are different initiatives on "ciudadanía digital (digital citizenship)", "formación (education)", etc. They are run from the Subdirección General de Fomento de la Sociedad de la Información (SubDG on Information Society Promotion) in SETSI in cooperation with red.es and and INTECO. This objective will be included in the new plan "Digital Agenda for Spain" to be adopted in 2012.
1.1.2 Has ICT been implemented as a part of the core curriculum? Yes http://www.euractiv.com/sections/eu-code-week-2015/infographic-coding-school-how-do-eu-countries-compare-318506
1.1.3 Are there effective government initiatives in place to encourage the involvement of startups and developers in providing ICT training for teachers and students? No
1.1.4 Are the training initiatives (for teachers) using e-learning tools present in the national programmes and action plans? No There is no nationwide specific accreditation scheme for ICT teacher competence such as ECDL. Teachers are certified on a course-by-course basis. A draft framework for Teacher Digital Competence has been designed, based on the DIGCOMP model developed by IPTS.
“Teach our children the principles, processes and the passion for entrepreneurship from young age.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.2.1 Has a national system for vocational traineeships in entrepreneurship for 12 - 18 y.o. been established? Yes In Spain, entrepreneurship education is included in the national framework curriculum and is compulsory for all VET fields (technical, industrial, commercial, etc). Entrepreneurship programmes and activities as part of the established courses normally account for a minimum of 35 hours per year, distributed in three hours per week in the second year of studies. The 35 hours refer to 55% of curricular content (as the Ministry of Education provides general directives on educational policy), but Autonomous Communities can increase this to as much as 100%. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/smes/vocational/entr_voca_en.pdf
1.2.2 Have courses / activities aimed at enhancing entrepreneurship skills been introduced as a part of the core curriculum in a primary and a secondary education system (e.g. willingness to take risks, ability and willingness to take initiative)? No The Spanish MoE is developing, through the “Centro Nacional e Innovación e Investigación Educativa”, the “Proyecto de Emprendimiento”. It aims at identifying and organizing activities to help develop the skills needed for entrepreneurship, and develop actions that help to train those competences. http://www.eun.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=f81e3194-6969-4382-b3bb-c3504bedf0be&groupId=43887
“Encourage university students to start a business before they graduate.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.3.1 Are there national/ regional programmes that encourage (e.g. with providing co-funding) the creation of startup Incubators / Accelerators? Yes There are public funding initiatives such as ENISA, CDTI, AVANZA, NEOTech, etc. on a country level and, depending on the region/city, you may find regional/local public initiatives to support entrepreneurship and incubators/accelerators
1.3.2 Has the country introduced any funding programmes for students who want to translate their business idea into a reality? Yes There are public funding initiatives such as ENISA, CDTI, AVANZA, NEOTech, etc. that work as public venture capitals or BAs. They also take part of funding rounds led by BAs.
1.3.3 Has the country taken additional measures to promote more actively Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs programme? No
1.3.4 Has the country developed incentives for academics to engage in entrepreneurial activity and stimulate the creation of university spin-offs? No Most of the private universities and business schools promote entrepreneurship and promote/take part on acceleration/incubation programs, startup competitions, etc. Most of the public universities, doesn't have this kind of programs but the scientific/academic investigations. Anyway, we can say that there's no actual policy on this.
1.3.5 Have support measures to mentor and coach women entrepreneurs at undergraduate level been implemented? No
“Prepare graduates for a radically different marketplace (digital skills + vocational training).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.4.1 Has your country joined the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs with a national/local coalition to promote digital employment? Yes The Spanish Grand Coalition for a Digital Economy is an initiative that carries a commitment of each of its members for economic growth and employment through ICT and the Digital Economy. This is a case of Public-Private Collaboration where both work towards common and strategic goals. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/node/67106
1.4.2 Has some form of "digital course certificate" confirming ICT skills been introduced as part of a curriculum in the higher education system? No
1.4.3 Has the Action 68 of the Digital Agenda to mainstream eLearning in national policies been implemented in your country? Yes http://daeimplementation.eu/indicator.php?id_country=25&action_n=68
“Encourage large companies to provide training for the general public (for management, leadership and communication skills).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
1.5.1 Have the measures to promote / scale up business - universities partnerships within the Knowledge Alliance on a national level been undertaken? Yes Institut d'Arquitectura Avancada de Catalunya - Knowledge Alliance for Advanced Urbanism
1.5.2 Have measure been introduced (such as co-financing by the country) to support provision of specific training (management, sales etc.) by corporates for people already working for SMEs / startups or unemployed? No
1.5.3 Have the national programmes to promote business-universities partnerships been implemented to provide work placement as part of the curriculum? Yes In order to complete most of university degres students have to perform work placement

Access to Talent

“Turn Europe into the easiest place for highly skilled talent to start a company and get a job by rolling out a pan-European startup Visa.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.1.1 Has a national startup visa programme to streamline process of setting up a business by non-EU, skilled talent been introduced in your country? Yes Support to entrepreneurs and investors http://www.exteriores.gob.es/Embajadas/ABUDHABI/es/VisadosVisas/Paginas/LeyEmprendedores.aspx Ley 14/2013, de 27 de septiembre, de apoyo a los emprendedores y su internacionalización http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/09/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-10074.pdf
2.1.2 Has a national policy in support of attracting foreign startups been introduced? Yes The Spanish Entrepreneurial Visa: http://tech.eu/features/5155/rules-entrepreneur-visa-spain/ Entrepreneurs are offered a fast tracked resident permit, requiring them to have a government-vetted business plan, health insurance and enough money to support themselves while living in Spain. Visa decisions are promised within 10 working days, and residence permit decisions in 20 days.
2.1.3 Has the EU Blue Card Directive (Directive 2009/50/EC) aimed at facilitating the admission and mobility of highly qualified migrants and their family members by harmonising entry and residence conditions throughout the EU been fully implemented by the country? Yes http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/InformacionInteres/FolletosInformativos/archivos/triptico_tarjeta_azul_eng.pdf http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/UnidadGrandesEmpresas/
2.1.4 Has the country signed bilateral and/or multilateral agreements with non-EU countries facilitating easier / free movement of workers? No
“Make it easy for companies to hire outside their home countries in the EU.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.2.1 Has a national policy measure in support of making a remote hiring of employees directly across EU possible and less burdensome been introduced (e.g. elimination of residence requirement)? No
“Make it easier for smaller companies to let employees go (special flexibility in human resources management for small companies).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.3.1 Has the country enabled the flexible and reliable contractual arrangements in line with EU common flexicurity principles? Yes In Spain, the "equality plans" which must be introduced in companies with more than 250 employees should help to improve the quality of jobs held by women. These plans relate to working time, the adaptation of working hours in accordance with family responsibilities, and pay. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=1515&langId=en
2.3.2 Has the country adopted the comprehensive life-long learning strategies in support of EU common flexicurity principles? Yes The country shows performance above the EU average with respect to life-long learning strategies http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en
2.3.3 Has the country implemented the effective active labor market policies to assist job-to-job transition in line with EU common flexicurity principles? No The country shows performance below the EU average with respect to the active labour market policies http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en
2.3.4 Has the country introduced the modern social security systems’ solutions in line with EU common flexicurity principles (e.g. solutions that would ensure the possibility for temporary workers to accumulate rights and would improve portability of entitlements across firm or branch borders)? Yes The country shows performance above the EU average in terms of the modern social security systems solutions http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10227&langId=en
“Bring the best brains back home (EU countries must launch targeted campaigns aimed at bringing their talent back home, through research grants, logistical support and public recognition).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
2.4.1 Has a national/ regional strategy to attract high-skilled labor through international student recruitment been developed? No
2.4.2 Have initiatives been undertaken at national / regional level that align with the HR Strategy for Researchers and the European Charter and Code? Yes AGAUR, ARAID, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), BC3, Basque Centre for Climate Change, Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Centro Nacional de Supercomputación, Catalan Institute of Classical Archaeology (ICAC), Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG), Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Computer Vision Centre (CVC), ICFO – The Institute of Photonic Sciences, IKERBASQUE - Basque Foundation for Science, IMDEA Water Institute, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), IRBLleida, ISGlobal, Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona Dr. Josep Trueta (IDIBGI), Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) Spanish Centre for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB) Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Universitat de Barcelona, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research (VHIR) http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/index.cfm/rights/strategy4ResearcherOrgs
2.4.3 Has the Researchers Directive (EU Scientific Visa) been fully implemented in the country? Yes http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/pdf/1_EN_ACT_part1_v6[1].pdf http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/ICMPD_General/Policy_Brief_March_2012_Scientific_Visa.pdf

Access to Capital

“Increase private and institutional investment in startups.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.1.1 Have provisions for facilitating secure access to alternative sources of funding, such as equity crowdfunding, mezzanine instruments or minibonds (convertible notes) and etc., been set up? Yes On 16 April 2015, the Spanish Parliament passed the Law 5/2015 of April 27th on Promoting Business Financing Act (or "Ley de fomento de financiacion empresarial or "LFFE") which was published on April 28th 2015. Title V of LFEE establishes the framework governing crowdfunding financing in Spain. It covers both securities and lending.
3.1.2 Have measures to promote public – private investment partnerships in order to address risk-aversion of venture capital, e.g. by creating national co-investment funds between public entities and private investors on a national level been established? Yes Public VC / funds co-invest with private investors and, at least at seed round, they allow private investors lead de funding round. Fond-ICO Global (public): This public venture capital fund of funds is a financing facility of the state-owned bank Instituto de Crédito Oficial. With a total of USD 1.2 billion of funds available, the fund seeks to promote privately managed venture capital funds. Its action is directed by the following principles: collaboration with private venture capital and private equity investment; forming private-public partnerships without interfering in the market; simplicity (recurrent schemes) and transparency (public tenders). Until end-2014, ICO helped to create 23 new venture capital and private equity funds, committing EUR 631 million. It aims at creating about 40 new venture capital funds mobilising an amount of around EUR 4 billion to be invested in Spain. Direct participation in venture capital entities - ENISA - ENISA is a public company, attached to the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism through the Directorate General of Industry and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. ENISA has allocated a modest amount of public funds to 19 private VC funds which in turn invest in initial and start-up phases of business projects based in Spain, which are viable and with a high growth potential. Furthermore, preferential support is given to initiatives providing advice to entrepreneurs, both in business management and in technical aspects to improve their chances of success.
3.1.3 Has an effective debt financing system been established by creating well-structured credit guarantees on bank loans on national level in order to enable banks to extend loans to startups that would otherwise not be able to find credit? Yes Spain has adopted a variety of instruments to stimulate bank lending to SMEs. One of the main measures has been to step up public guarantee schemes to cover, at least partially, the risk inherent in lending. In 2013, SMEs received EUR 13.9 billion through Public Credit Institute (ICO) credit lines, and EUR 17 billion has been allocated for 2014. Mutual guarantee companies have been strengthened and the definition of an SME for banks’ capital requirements purposes has been amended to facilitate lending to SMEs. Furthermore, in January 2014 Spain successfully concluded a financial sector programme to recapitalise its financial institutions. EU RSI (Risk Sharing Instrument) available as well as InnovFin SME Guarantee: http://www.eif.org/what_we_do/guarantees/RSI/Rsi_intermediaries.htm, http://www.eif.org/what_we_do/guarantees/single_eu_debt_instrument/innovfin-guarantee-facility/innovfin-smeg_signatures.pdf State guarantee of securities. State Guarantee of securities issued by FTPYME funds (Asset Securitization Funds for SMEs) is supported by the Directorate General of Industry and Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (DGIPYME). The program, co-managed by the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism and the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, supports bonds issued by these funds provided by financial institutions that reinvest, at least 80% of their assets on the liquidity provided by new loans for SMEs
3.1.4 Has the Late Payment Directive been implemented in the country that reduces the time to pay the invoice and hence the need for short-term financing? Yes The law 15/2010, 5th of July 2010 establishes the maximum period for payment between private companies and between private companies and public sector. The adaptation period for companies and public sector finished the 1st of January 2013 http://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-2010-10708 Implemented 22 February 2013 The government notified the Commission of the national transposition measure for the Late Payments Directive, which requires the public sector to pay within 30 days. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2014_2019/documents/imco/dv/late_payments_directive_eprs_/late_payments_directive_eprs_en.pdf
3.1.5 Have actions to improve access to finance for startups and SMEs been undertaken? Yes Enisa linea agenda digital. Loan from 25.000 to 300.000 Euros to stimulate the development of new ICT products and services. http://www.enisa.es First deals, enabling loans contracts to micro-enterprises, will be signed between the EIF and Qredits Microfinanciering (The Netherlands), Association pour le Droit à l'Initiative Economique (France), Microfinance Ireland (Ireland), PerMicro (Italy), Laboral Kutxa/ Caja Laboral Popular (Spain) and Nextebank (Romania), covering six countries and only 5 months after the launch of the EaSI initiative. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-5862_en.htm
“Make it easier for high-growth companies to raise capital through public markets.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.2.1 Has a national legislation on venture capital (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venture_capital) (in support of the EC´s new venture capital framework (http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/consultations/docs/2011/venture_capital/consultation_paper_en.pdf) been introduced that enables cross-border financing for SMEs more easily available ? Yes In July 2014, the government adopted a draft law regulating venture capital companies and closed-end collective investment schemes. This law is expected to create new institutions known as ‘SME-venture capital companies’ which will benefit from a more flexible financial framework to make use of debt instruments. They would be required to invest at least 70 % of their assets in SMEs, to take part in their management and to provide them with advisory services. The law is also expected to reduce administrative burdens and speed up administrative procedures for venture capital companies.
3.2.2 Have measures to support business angels friendly environment been introduced on a national level? Yes European Angels Fund S.C.A. SICAR – Fondo Isabel La Católica* (EAF Spain) is a EUR 30 million initiative funded by the EIF, Instituto de Crédito Oficial (ICO) and Neotec set-up to provide equity to Business Angels and other non-institutional investors for the financing of innovative companies in the form of co-investments. The initiative has initially been launched in November 2012 in close cooperation with ICO and Axis**. EAF Spain has been established in December 2013 as one of the first compartments under the regulated European Angels Fund umbrella fund structure focusing on investment activity in Spain. http://www.eif.org/what_we_do/equity/eaf/Spain.htm Law 14/2013, 27th of September, support for entrepreneurs and internationalization http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/09/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-10074.pdf New incentives for business angels have been introduced (deduction of 20 % of investment in shares in new companies and exemption of capital gains deriving from their transfer) http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/resources/documents/taxation/gen_info/economic_analysis/tax_structures/2014/report.pdf
3.2.3 Have tax reliefs on seed and venture capital investments been introduced on national level? Yes According to Law 8/2011, of 1 July, capital gains derived from the transfer of stock options or shares in start-ups and companies recently created will be exempt. To apply this exemption, the total acquisition value cannot exceed, for all entities, EUR 25,000 annual, nor EUR 75,000 per entity during the period of three years. http://www.eban.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/12.-Compendium-fiscal-incentives-2012.pdf In addition: Any capital gains made by the VCF on the profitable sale of shares in target companies are 99% exempted from capital gains tax in Spain provided the shares have been held for a period of 3 -10 years. Spanish capital gains tax stands at 30% (capital gains are taxed at the corporate income tax rate). If the sale of shares occurs outside this period there is no relief from this tax. This regime was considerably improved by Law 62/2003 in December, 2003. Individual, incentive for Catalan Business Angels: According to Law 7/2011, of 27 July, the investor business angel can apply for a deduction in terms of income tax (IRPF) for stock acquisitions or investments in start-ups or companies recently created. The taxpayer, in the income tax part corresponding to Catalonia Region, and with effect since 1 January of 2010, will have a deduction of 30% of the quantities invested in start-ups during the previous exercise with a maximum deduction of EUR 6,000. The stockholding acquired cannot exceed the 35% of the Social Capital of the start-up*. Individual, incentive for Business Angels from Madrid: In the Madrid Region, Law 10/2009, of 23 December, establishes a similar measure in the income tax for Madrid Business angels. In this case, the deduction will be the 20% of the investment in start-ups with maximum quantity of EUR 4,000. The stockholding acquired can’t exceed the 40% of the Social Capital of the start-up
3.2.4 Have tax incentives for acquiring startups / on reinvesting profit in startup businesses for investors of a national origin been implemented? Yes Law 14/2013, 27th of September, support for entrepreneurs and internationalization http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/09/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-10074.pdf From investors perspective, it's not enough
3.2.5 Has the revised Directive on transparency requirements for listed companies been implemented in the country (Transparency Directive)? Yes http://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=DOUE-L-2015-80944
3.2.6 Have policies to promote easier access to stock exchange for high growth companies been adopted, such as: a single registration in the home country, and with simplified accounting and reporting (disclosure) obligations? Yes Madrid's Mercado Alternativo Bursatil (MAB) https://www.bolsasymercados.es/mab/esp/Home.aspx
“Buy more from smaller businesses.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.3.1 Have the measures been implemented to promote procurement from SMEs (for example by make it easier for startups and SMEs to access government procurement market by lowering barriers to entry and lessening administrative burden of the process, or by promoting procurement from smaller companies by corporates)? No The proportion of SMEs submitting tendering documents in electronic format is also much lower than the EU average. The splitting up of public tenders into smaller, SME-friendlier lots is still not a common practice, resulting in low participation rates for SMEs. The policy response to this challenge was late to materialise. The first major effort to combat late payments came in 2013 with the transposition of the EU Late Payment Directive into national law, which brought in an official maximum time permitted for public authorities to pay due amounts. Lately, these efforts have been complemented by strengthening the use of IT-based tendering systems to speed up and simplify procedures for SMEs; for example, the adoption of Ministerial order HAP/1074/2014 regulating the functional and technical conditions to be met by the general electronic invoices entry point. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/performance-review/files/countries-sheets/2015/spain_en.pdf
3.3.2 Does the country make use of European Code of best practices facilitating access by SMEs to public procurement contracts? No Spain awards only a small fraction of above-threshold public procurement to SMEs. SMEs in Spain seem to be losing out disproportionately in public procurement, compared to what their weight in the economy could warrant. http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/publicprocurement/docs/modernising_rules/smes-access-and-aggregation-of-demand_en.pdf
3.3.3 Has legislation been implemented to make sure that at least some percentage of the administration procurement goes to "innovative" solutions (so called "innovative public procurement")? Yes In 2011 the Spanish government passed a law embedding PCP and PPI into the Spanish strategy for research and innovation, setting a target of 3% of the procurement budget of the General State Administration to be spent on innovation, and mandating the Spanish center for research and innovation (CDTI) to provide financial incentives to public procurers for innovation procurement (mostly PPI supported via EU Structural Funds), https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/news/innovation-procurement-initiatives-around-europe
3.3.4 Is SMEs' share in the total value of public contracts awarded above EU average (29% in 2013)? No 21% http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/publicprocurement/docs/modernising_rules/smes-access-and-aggregation-of-demand_en.pdf
“Institute an E-Corp: a new type of cross-European corporation. ”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.4.1 Has the Council Directive Council Directive 2001/86/EC supplementing the Statute for European Company fully adopted by the country? Yes Transposed into national legislation http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=2453&langId=en
3.4.2 Has the Service Directive (Directive 2006/123/EC of 12 December 2006 on services in the internal market) been fully implemented by the country? Yes http://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/services/services-directive/implementation/index_en.htm
“Tax share options as capital gains, not income, to attract talent to startups (special tax regime for startups).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
3.5.1 Have national regulations been developed in support of easing up early startups regulatory burden (e.g. preferential tax scheme on share options for employees in order for startups to attract talent without big initial investment in salaries)? No The new draft Law on Personal Income Tax, which is currently pending in the Senate, which is expected to enter into force late 2015, will bring some changes in the tax system. It eliminates Article 42.2 which established the limit of 12,000 EUR - stock options weren't considered income in kind and also eliminates the 40% reduction - the current standard for considered irregular incomes. https://www.adigital.org/?noticias=el-gobierno-cercena-el-crecimiento-de-start-ups-en-espana
3.5.2 Does the government have a differential tax rate for companies according to their age or the size of their profit? Yes Law 27/2014, 27th of November 2014, Taxation on company benefits http://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-2014-12328 The annual turnover threshold to qualify as a small or medium sized enterprise (SMEs) is EUR 10 million. SMEs enjoy a reduced rate of 25% for the tax base up to EUR 300 000. Throughout 2011–14, companies with less than 25 employees and a turnover below EUR 5 million are taxed on their annual profits below EUR  300  000 at 20%, and above this threshold are taxed at 25%. Companies that do no longer qualify as SME will nevertheless be able to apply the regime for three years following the loss for the SME qualification. http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/resources/documents/taxation/gen_info/economic_analysis/tax_structures/2014/report.pdf New corporate start-ups (since January 2013) are subject to a 15% tax rate on their annual profits under EUR 300 000, and 20% on the excess as of the first and second year in which profits arise (The normal tax rate is 30%). Reduction of CIT tax rates and of 20 % of net income in PIT for new companies during the first two years http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/resources/documents/taxation/gen_info/economic_analysis/tax_structures/2014/report.pdf
3.5.3 Has the government implemented an ‘Entrepreneurs Relief’ tax break to reduce the capital gains tax on selling all or part of the business? No
3.5.4 Has the government introduced any other early stage tax relief for entrepreneurs and their employees? Yes 30% in general terms and a reduced rate applies to small and medium-sized enterprises). Law 14/2013, 27th of September, support for entrepreneurs and internationalization. Establish benefits on social security taxation for new entrepreneurs, new hires and for entrepreneur who are part of an especial protection collective. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2013/09/28/pdfs/BOE-A-2013-10074.pdf.

Data Policy, Protection & Privacy

“Revise and normalise data protection laws (unified data protection law in Europe).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.1.1 Is the country complaint with the General Data Protection Regulation GDPR (only valid after approval of the regulation)? Yes yes
4.1.2 Has the country developed programmes to encourage the reuse of data in public and private sector? No Only for the public sector. The country has successfully transposed the PSI Directive (The Directive on the re-use of public sector information) into the national legislation and has encouraged the reuse of public sector information https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/implementation-public-sector-information-directive-member-states
“Remove the requirement for data providers to store information in any given country. ”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.2.3 Has the country developed a specific Cloud Computing Strategy? No No strategy, but the operation of SARA (Spanish Public Administrations Network) platform for delivering cloud services for the Public Sector started in 2010.
“Make government data public.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.3.1 Has the Public Sector Information Directive been fully implemented in the country? Yes https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/implementation-psi-directive-spain
4.3.2 Does the national law of the country provide for a general obligation for public sector bodies to allow re-use of Public Sector Information? Yes https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/implementation-psi-directive-spain
4.3.3 Does legislation adopted in the country prohibit Public Sector Information holders from granting exclusive rights to re-sell or re-use data to any legal entity? Yes see www.epsiplatform.eu/content/european-psi-scoreboard.
4.3.4 Has the country taken part in the Open Government initiatives, such as Open Government Partnership (OGP), to drive best practice in knowledge sharing and promote integrity and trust in data management? Yes http://www.opengovpartnership.org/countries
4.3.5 Has the country improved policies and practices on Open Access to better allow access to data and re-use of data generated by scientific research? Yes see European Commission, European Research Area Progress Report 2014 http://ec.europa.eu/research/era/eraprogress_en.htm. There is an extremely high awareness of Open Access within the library community but not as much among (there is no culture of slepf-archiving or demand for repositories). There is practically not awareness of Open Access within the commercial publishers. 21 Spanish institutions have signed the Berlin Declaration including 17 universities out of a total of 74 universities. Besides the 5 universities that have mandates policies other universities are engaged in ongoing Open Access work. Some universities, like the University of Alicante, give direct financial help to departments or research groups according to the number of documents they deposit in the institutional repository. https://www.openaire.eu/spain/noads/oa-spain
“Make governments think digitally (unified technological platform).”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
4.4.1 Has the country built analytical tools to make use of governmental digital records and data in order to deliver insight in support of better deliverables, better policies and better decision making processes (for example use of health data to identify trends, preventive actions)? No
4.4.2 Have the country aligned national interoperability frameworks with the European Interoperability Framework? Yes 94% National Interoperability Framework (NIF) - European Interoperability Framework (EIF) alignment http://ec.europa.eu/isa/documents/publications/2014-report-on-state-of-play-of-interoperability.pdf
4.4.3 Has the country joined the European Cloud Partnership initiatives in order to advance towards joint procurement of cloud computing services by public bodies based on the emerging common user requirements? Yes Aitor Cubo Contreras, Spanish Ministry of Finance and Public Administrations, is a member of the European Cloud Partnership Steering Board https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/european-cloud-partnership http://www.cloudforeurope.eu/consortium

Thought Leadership

“Initiate a mentality shift across Europe in terms of how we define success - promoting entrepreneurship.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.1.1 Does the country conduct any PR and media campaigns at national/regional level aimed at promoting entrepreneurship (e.g. by appointing a role model, an entrepreneur in residence” to promote entrepreneurial culture etc.)? Yes Yuzz. A competition where 30 young preselected candidates can enjoy office space, mentoring, training and administrative and legal support to develop their ideas during 7 months after which 3 projects will receive between 10.000 and 30.000 Euros, and the best project wins a week in the Silicon Valley. http://www.yuzz.org/
5.1.2 Does the country actively promote women entrepreneurship through specifically targeted mentoring and networking programmes? Yes Laws establish some benefits on social security taxation for woman entrepreneurs. But the country does not participate in the European network of female entrepreneurship ambassadors http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/promoting-entrepreneurship/we-work-for/women/support-networks/index_en.htm
5.1.3 Have the legislative measures been introduced to improve policies allowing second chance for entrepreneurs? Yes Law 1/2015, 28th of February 2015. "Second chance" law http://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-2015-2109 A host of important policy initiatives included the reforms of the bankruptcy legislation and the introduction of a new legal status of ‘entrepreneur with limited liability’ to protect an individual’s personal assets and reduce the fear of failure. The Law of March 2014 on urgent measures for refinancing and restructuring companies´ debt. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/business-friendly-environment/performance-review/files/countries-sheets/2015/spain_en.pdf
5.1.4 Does the government support the mentorship programmes for startups either through funding, introductions, provision of space, supplying mentors or creation of networks? Yes http://www.ceeiburgos.es/ http://tetuanvalley.com/
“Appoint a Chief Digital Officer for every country in the EU. ”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.2.1 Has a Digital Champion been appointed in the country? Yes Dr Andreu Veà-Baró is the Digital Champion of Spain. http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/digital-champion-spain
5.2.2 Is the Digital Champion or an equivalent figure (“Chef Digital Officer”) empowered with the practical means to execute Startup Manifesto on a national level (budget, recognition, political support)? Yes https://www.adigital.org/?noticias=el-gobierno-cercena-el-crecimiento-de-start-ups-en-espana
“Create a 'best practices' repository.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.3.1 Has the country taken steps to promote and showcase the best practices (for example, by creating a resource to share best practices´ in promoting digital entrepreneurship or actively promoting best practices on a national / regional level)? No
“Establish a Digital European Forum.”
Number Indicator Completed Evidence
5.4.1 Has an association that actively promotes recommendations of the European Startup Manifesto at the national level been launched in the country? Yes This work is coordinated by the authors of the Spanish Startup Manifesto. Asociación Española de Startups (Spanish Startups Association) http://www.asociacionstartups.es/informados
5.4.2 Does the country have actively engaged entrepreneurs, policy makers and officials in European Digital Forum? Yes The European Digital Forum actively collaborates with the authors of the Spanish Startup Manifesto.

Latest Updates

New information
In Action 4.2 in Spain Remove the requirement for data providers to store information in any given country.
Updated on 2016-03-16 23:57:17 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 4.1 in Latvia Revise and normalise data protection laws (unified data protection law in Europe).
Updated on 2016-03-16 11:23:59 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 4.4 in Latvia Make governments think digitally (unified technological platform).
Updated on 2016-03-16 11:23:59 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 4.3 in Austria Make government data public.
Updated on 2016-03-16 10:58:39 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 1.1 in Austria Make teachers digitally confident and competent to rise to the challenge.
Updated on 2016-03-16 10:51:00 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 1.5 in Cyprus Encourage large companies to provide training for the general public (for management, leadership and communication skills).
Updated on 2016-03-16 10:47:06 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 3.1 in Belgium Increase private and institutional investment in startups.
Updated on 2016-02-26 16:29:13 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 3.5 in Spain Tax share options as capital gains, not income, to attract talent to startups (special tax regime for startups).
Updated on 2016-02-22 15:41:03 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 3.3 in France Buy more from smaller businesses.
Updated on 2016-02-22 13:38:21 by Kasia Jakimowicz
New information
In Action 2.3 in Latvia Make it easier for smaller companies to let employees go (special flexibility in human resources management for small companies).
Updated on 2016-02-22 13:33:43 by Kasia Jakimowicz